实战多阶段构建 Laravel 镜像

本节适用于 PHP 开发者阅读。

准备

新建一个 Laravel 项目或在已有的 Laravel 项目根目录下新建 Dockerfile .dockerignore laravel.conf 文件。

.dockerignore 文件中写入以下内容。

.idea/
.git/
vendor/
node_modules/
public/js/
public/css/
yarn-error.log
bootstrap/cache/*
storage/
# 自行添加其他需要排除的文件,例如 .env.* 文件

laravel.conf 文件中写入 nginx 配置。

server {
listen 80 default_server;
root /app/laravel/public;
index index.php index.html;
location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$query_string;
}
location ~ .*\.php(\/.*)*$ {
fastcgi_pass laravel:9000;
include fastcgi.conf;
# fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
# fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
# fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
}
}

前端构建

第一阶段进行前端构建。

FROM node:alpine as frontend
COPY package.json /app/
RUN cd /app \
&& npm install --registry=https://registry.npm.taobao.org
COPY webpack.mix.js /app/
COPY resources/assets/ /app/resources/assets/
RUN cd /app \
&& npm run production

安装 Composer 依赖

第二阶段安装 Composer 依赖。

FROM composer as composer
COPY database/ /app/database/
COPY composer.json composer.lock /app/
RUN cd /app \
&& composer config -g repo.packagist composer https://mirrors.aliyun.com/composer/ \
&& composer install \
--ignore-platform-reqs \
--no-interaction \
--no-plugins \
--no-scripts \
--prefer-dist

整合以上阶段所生成的文件

第三阶段对以上阶段生成的文件进行整合。

FROM php:7.2-fpm-alpine as laravel
ARG LARAVEL_PATH=/app/laravel
COPY --from=composer /app/vendor/ ${LARAVEL_PATH}/vendor/
COPY . ${LARAVEL_PATH}
COPY --from=frontend /app/public/js/ ${LARAVEL_PATH}/public/js/
COPY --from=frontend /app/public/css/ ${LARAVEL_PATH}/public/css/
COPY --from=frontend /app/mix-manifest.json ${LARAVEL_PATH}/mix-manifest.json
RUN cd ${LARAVEL_PATH} \
&& php artisan package:discover \
&& mkdir -p storage \
&& mkdir -p storage/framework/cache \
&& mkdir -p storage/framework/sessions \
&& mkdir -p storage/framework/testing \
&& mkdir -p storage/framework/views \
&& mkdir -p storage/logs \
&& chmod -R 777 storage

最后一个阶段构建 NGINX 镜像

FROM nginx:alpine as nginx
ARG LARAVEL_PATH=/app/laravel
COPY laravel.conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/
COPY --from=laravel ${LARAVEL_PATH}/public ${LARAVEL_PATH}/public

构建 Laravel 及 Nginx 镜像

使用 docker build 命令构建镜像。

$ docker build -t my/laravel --target=laravel .
$ docker build -t my/nginx --target=nginx .

启动容器并测试

新建 Docker 网络

$ docker network create laravel

启动 laravel 容器, --name=laravel 参数设定的名字必须与 nginx 配置文件中的 fastcgi_pass laravel:9000; 一致

$ docker run -it --rm --name=laravel --network=laravel my/laravel

启动 nginx 容器

$ docker run -it --rm --network=laravel -p 8080:80 my/nginx

浏览器访问 127.0.0.1:8080 可以看到 Laravel 项目首页。

也许 Laravel 项目依赖其他外部服务,例如 redis、MySQL,请自行启动这些服务之后再进行测试,本小节不再赘述。

生产环境优化

本小节内容为了方便测试,将配置文件直接放到了镜像中,实际在使用时 建议 将配置文件作为 configsecret 挂载到容器中,请读者自行学习 Swarm modeKubernetes 的相关内容。

附录

完整的 Dockerfile 文件如下。

FROM node:alpine as frontend
COPY package.json /app/
RUN cd /app \
&& npm install --registry=https://registry.npm.taobao.org
COPY webpack.mix.js /app/
COPY resources/assets/ /app/resources/assets/
RUN cd /app \
&& npm run production
FROM composer as composer
COPY database/ /app/database/
COPY composer.json /app/
RUN cd /app \
&& composer config -g repo.packagist composer https://mirrors.aliyun.com/composer/ \
&& composer install \
--ignore-platform-reqs \
--no-interaction \
--no-plugins \
--no-scripts \
--prefer-dist
FROM php:7.2-fpm-alpine as laravel
ARG LARAVEL_PATH=/app/laravel
COPY --from=composer /app/vendor/ ${LARAVEL_PATH}/vendor/
COPY . ${LARAVEL_PATH}
COPY --from=frontend /app/public/js/ ${LARAVEL_PATH}/public/js/
COPY --from=frontend /app/public/css/ ${LARAVEL_PATH}/public/css/
COPY --from=frontend /app/mix-manifest.json ${LARAVEL_PATH}/mix-manifest.json
RUN cd ${LARAVEL_PATH} \
&& php artisan package:discover \
&& mkdir -p storage \
&& mkdir -p storage/framework/cache \
&& mkdir -p storage/framework/sessions \
&& mkdir -p storage/framework/testing \
&& mkdir -p storage/framework/views \
&& mkdir -p storage/logs \
&& chmod -R 777 storage
FROM nginx:alpine as nginx
ARG LARAVEL_PATH=/app/laravel
COPY laravel.conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/
COPY --from=laravel ${LARAVEL_PATH}/public ${LARAVEL_PATH}/public